In Field Fruit Sizing Using A Smart Phone Application

The application was based on imaging of fruit against a backboard with a scale using a mobile phone, with operational limits set on camera to object plane angle and camera to object distance.
Authors: Zhenglin Wang, Anand Koirala, Kerry Walsh, Nicholas Anderson and Brijesh Verma
Journal: Sensors 2018, 18(10), 3331
Publisher: MDPI 
In field (on tree) fruit sizing has value in assessing crop health and for yield estimation. As the mobile phone is a sensor and communication rich device carried by almost all farm staff, an Android application (“FruitSize”) was developed for measurement of fruit size in field using the phone camera, with a typical assessment rate of 240 fruit per hour achieved. The application was based on imaging of fruit against a backboard with a scale using a mobile phone, with operational limits set on camera to object plane angle and camera to object distance. Image processing and object segmentation techniques available in the OpenCV library were used to segment the fruit from background in images to obtain fruit sizes. Phone camera parameters were accessed to allow calculation of fruit size, with camera to fruit perimeter distance obtained from fruit allometric relationships between fruit thickness and width. Phone geolocation data was also accessed, allowing for mapping fruits of data. Under controlled lighting, RMSEs of 3.4, 3.8, 2.4, and 2.0 mm were achieved in estimation of avocado, mandarin, navel orange, and apple fruit diameter, respectively. For mango fruit, RMSEs of 5.3 and 3.7 mm were achieved on length and width, benchmarked to manual caliper measurements, under controlled lighting, and RMSEs of 5.5 and 4.6 mm were obtained in-field under ambient lighting.

Photo: Application scenario (left) and main user interface (right), illustrating fruit real dimensions of length (L), width (W), and thickness (T). (credits: Zhenglin Wang, Anand Koirala, Kerry Walsh, Nicholas Anderson and Brijesh Verma)

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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