Author/Publisher: SAPEA, Science Advice for Policy by European Academies
The oceans are home to a large number of resources that are either not exploited or are marginally exploited currently and which could improve food security and the wellbeing of humanity. Increased food production from the ocean could release some of the pressure that has been put on agriculture, as well as supporting a range of livelihoods and activities associated with the fishing and mariculture industries.
This evidence review report puts forward a number of options for how more food and biomass could be obtained from the ocean. These options group into four main categories:
(1) improvements in management and increased utilisation of wastes in the traditional capture fisheries,
(2) fishing on new wild species that are not, or only marginally, exploited today,
(3) mariculture of organisms that extract their nutrients directly from the water, and
(4) mariculture of organisms that require feed.
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Illustration Photo: Antarctic krill, such as this specimen in the Weddell Sea with a stomach full of yellow algae, are a critical link in the ocean food. (credits: Maia Valenzuela / Flickr Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 Generic (CC BY 2.0))