Authors: Haider Mahmood Jawad, Rosdiadee Nordin, Sadik Kamel Gharghan, Aqeel Mahmood Jawad and Mahamod Ismail 
 
Journal: Sensors 2017, 17(8), 1781; https://doi.org/10.3390/s17081781
 
Publisher: MDPI 
 
Abstract
 
Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) can be used in agriculture to provide farmers with a large amount of information. Precision agriculture (PA) is a management strategy that employs information technology to improve quality and production. Utilizing wireless sensor technologies and management tools can lead to a highly effective, green agriculture. Based on PA management, the same routine to a crop regardless of site environments can be avoided. From several perspectives, field management can improve PA, including the provision of adequate nutrients for crops and the wastage of pesticides for the effective control of weeds, pests, and diseases.
 
This review outlines the recent applications of WSNs in agriculture research as well as classifies and compares various wireless communication protocols, the taxonomy of energy-efficient and energy harvesting techniques for WSNs that can be used in agricultural monitoring systems, and comparison between early research works on agriculture-based WSNs. The challenges and limitations of WSNs in the agricultural domain are explored, and several power reduction and agricultural management techniques for long-term monitoring are highlighted. These approaches may also increase the number of opportunities for processing Internet of Things (IoT) data.
 

Picture: Example of farm field-based Internet of Things (IoT) and provided by a solar cell battery charger: (a) Agriculture sensor node with related sensor and solar cell, (b) Sink and actuator nodes, and (c) Gateway node and cloud computing. (credits: Haider Mahmood Jawad, Rosdiadee Nordin, Sadik Kamel Gharghan, Aqeel Mahmood Jawad and Mahamod Ismail )

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
 

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